The Land Border Agreement between India and Bangladesh, commonly known as the Indira-Mujib Pact, was signed in 1974 to bring an end to the long-standing border disputes between the two countries. The agreement was signed by then-Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, and Bangladesh President, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and marked the beginning of a new era of cooperation between the two neighboring countries.
The Land Border Agreement focused on the demarcation of the land border between India and Bangladesh, which had been a major source of tension between the two countries. The agreement established a Joint Boundary Working Group (JBWG) to survey and demarcate the land boundary between the two countries. The JBWG was made up of representatives from both countries and served as a platform for resolving any disputes that arose during the demarcation process.
The Land Border Agreement also addressed the issue of enclaves, which were pockets of land belonging to one country but located within the territory of the other country. The agreement called for the exchange of enclaves, with India ceding 111 enclaves to Bangladesh and Bangladesh ceding 51 enclaves to India. This exchange of enclaves was aimed at simplifying the administration of the border and making it easier for the people living in the enclaves to access basic services such as healthcare and education.
The Land Border Agreement was a landmark achievement in the history of India-Bangladesh relations and has had a significant impact on the people living along the border. The demarcation of the border has reduced tension and has made it easier for people to move across the border for trade and other purposes. The exchange of enclaves has also improved the lives of the people living in these areas, who previously faced many difficulties accessing basic services.
In conclusion, the Land Border Agreement between India and Bangladesh, signed in 1974, was a significant milestone in the history of the two countries. The agreement focused on the demarcation of the land border and the exchange of enclaves, and has had a positive impact on the lives of the people living along the border. The agreement remains an example of how peaceful resolution of disputes can lead to mutual benefits for all parties involved.